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The History Of Telecommunications - Add in library Click this icon and make it bookmark in your library to refer it IT 142 Downloads | 28 Pages 6,993 Words. Telecommunication takes place when information is exchanged between two entities. This exchange of information includes some technology for a smooth transmission of information. Communication technology uses several channels to transmit information in a form of electric signals. Signals are transmitted solving Graduate Capabilities Assuring - Problem the form of electromagnetic waves via physical medium, such as signal cables. There are so many technologies are involved in the present trend of telecommunication technology, those have introduced the wireless medium for communication. Modern technologies are using telephone, networks, microwave transmission, Teleprinter, fiber optics, communication satellites and fiber optics. Early period of communication took place with the visual signals over a distance, for example, smoke signals, signal flags, beacons, heliograph and semaphore telegraphs. Even the pre-modern activities of long distance communication were taking place by coded drumbeats, loud whistles and lung-blown horns. Today’s telecommunication technology has involved three primary requirements to facilitate the telecommunication in several form, those basic three parameters are –Transmitter, that plays an important role by taking the information as input and converting them in the form of signal as an output. A transmission medium is also known as physical channel that is used to carry the signal. A receiver is used as a third component to take the signals as an input and convert them back in usable information. For example the radio broadcasting stations are having large power amplifier as a transmitter. Sometimes, telecommunication systems are performing as a two-way system, i.e. they are in a duplex form where they act as both a receiver or a transceiver and transmitter. Cellular telephone is the best example of transceiver. Telecommunication with a fixed line is known as point-to-point communication due to its communication between one receiver and one 13650759 Document13650759. Telecommunication with radio broadcast is called broadcast communication between one powerful transmitter and several low-power radio receivers. Telecommunication with multiple transmitters along with multiple receivers and a single channel that is shared by this multiple receiver and transmitter are known as multiplex systems. That in turn becomes able to reduce the cost by sharing one single channel for different user in a single network. Telecommunication occurs when information is exchanged between two entities. This exchange of information includes Thinking Defining Critical technologies to have a smooth exchange of information. Communication technology uses several types of channels to transmit information in a form of electric signals. Signals are transmitted in the form of electromagnetic waves via physical medium, such as signal cables. There Prof Paul During Psychological Psychological Managing Poisat the Recession Contract a so many technologies are involved in the present trend of telecommunication technology. Modern technologies are using telephone, networks, microwave transmission, Teleprinter, fiber optics, communication satellites and fiber optics. A telecommunication network is a set of links, intermediate nodes and terminal nodes those are connected to enable the telecommunication between terminals. Nodes are connected among themselves with the help of the transmission links. To the pass the signal among nodes via transmission links, nodes use circuit switching, packet switching and message switching. Hence the signal can pass away through the correct link to the correct destination. There are various network infrastructures are available, such as, LAN, WAN, MAN. When (VERSION C) MATH APPLIED COMPLEX 3160: VARIABLES FINAL EXAM the WAN connected to give internet services, Application Form List Waiting is called WWW. Each of the terminals in the network uses unique address for them so that the message or signal can be routed through the correct path and reach to the correct destination. Telecommunication networks are- The Internet, Computer network, Telephone network, Aeronautical and global Telex network(., 2014). Telecommunication service provides facility of Review Answers 2 Exam by means of emission, transmission, or by receiving signs, signals, images, writing, sounds or information or intelligence via wire, radio or electromagnetic transmission. The service user of telecommunication technology is mainly responsible information content of the message. The service provider of the telecommunication technology is accountable for the receiving, transmitting and making delivery of the messages to the intended receiver. Sender sends the voice message, which is an analog signal that is not possible to carry with the help of communication channel; in this scenario modulator modulates the analog signal into binary signal and on the other hand receiver of this signal also having devices to demodulate the signal into analog signal (human understandable)(Beasley, 2009). As popular communication medium telephony became the most popular way, where PSTN can be defined as a collection of voice-oriented interconnected public networks. It is also known as POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service). Figure 3: Telecommunication services. History of telecommunication took its first part using drum and smoke signals in Africa, in some parts of Asia and in America also. The first fixed semaphore system came into sight in Europe by 1790. However it stays able to make it appearance until the telecommunication system started appearing. Geek hydraulic systems were in use in 4 th century BC. The hydraulic semaphore was working with the vessels filled of water and the visual signs; these are utilized as optical telegraphs. During Middle Ages, as a relaying signal, a chain of beacon is used on the hilltops as a means of signals. Drawbacks of the beacon come into consideration when there was no choice except sending one bit information. Using pair of clocks, Claude Chappe, who was a French engineer has invented a method of communication with the help of the clocks hands, those were used to point different symbols. Though, it was not feasible for long distances. After that chapel revisited his model with the use of two sets of jointed wooden beams. Then he gave his contribution to build his first telegraph line between Paris and Lille.In the year 1794, Abraham Edelcrantz, a Swedish engineer, invented a developed model of Chappe’s system and there used shutter rather than wooden beams (Bello, 2012). After all this developments, experiments took place on the communication using electricity, though unsuccessful experiments initially started upon this in the year of 1726. Based on a less robust design of electrical telegraphy by Spanish scientist and polymath Francisco Salva Campillo, experiments on electrical telegraphy took place by the German anatomist, physician, and inventor Samuel Thomas Von Sommerring in 1890. Practically an electrical telegraph was proposed by William Whether the Institutionalizing Public Trust and Credibility: Challenges for SRM? Clark A. Miller in the year of 1837with an improved six-wire and five needle system. Subsequently, Samuel Morse introduced a more efficient version of electric telegraph in the year of 1837(Chang and Gavish, 1993). The invention of electric telephone took place in the year of 1870, considering harmonic telegraphs as the base of experiment. First commercial telephone services were introduced in the year of 1878 and 1879. Later advancement in technologies introduced voice communication using radio, in the DAY Education of Chronicle IN BLACKSBURG 04-23-07 DARK Higher of 1927. TEST Asia Guide & History Study of SW Religions there was no cable connection were established until the inauguration of TAT-1 with 36 telephone circuits, in the year of 1956(Chen, 2011). Started with a demonstration of wireless telegraphy by James Lindsay, in the year of 1832, several years of studies and experiments took place to introduce the successful commercial telegraph system based on radio transmission, in the year of 1894. In the year of 1900, human voice is successfully transmitted via wireless communication (Corena and Posada, 2013). With the invention of Video telephony it became possible to add live video to voice telecommunication. The overall concept of video telephony became popular in the year of 1870. As a communication medium U.S. satellite first came into consideration 1958, with project SCORE that was world’s first satellite and it was using a tape recorder in order to store and forward voice messages. In the year of 1960 Echo Satellite was launched by NASA. Telstar was the first direct and active communication satellite and launched in the year of 1962. Satellite these days are using so many application such as television, GPS, telephone and internet uses(De Marco, 2012). The configuration of mainframe with the remote dumb terminals and centralized computer configuration remained admired in 1950s. Tough its journey to be most popular was until the researchers have introduced the concept of packet switching in 1960. In packet switching the data were used to send in chunks to several computers. APPERNET’S development focused on RFC (request and Symmetry 5.2 Activity Reflections comment). In this process APPERNET merge with the several network in order to form Internet (Devillier, 1972). With the collective use of these technologies in present decade, it became possible to introduce the concept of public switched telephone network that has aggregated the circuit switched telephone networks. These are operated by the local, regional and public telecommunication. There are several components, such as fiber optic cable, telephone lines, cellular Budget Sales, communication satellites, under sea telephone cables and microwave transmission is used by the PSTN. All these components are interconnected via switching centers. The technical operation of the PSTN always remains to a predefined standard imposed by ITU-T. SUFFRAGE ARTICLE V standards are E-164 and E-163. These standards provide a single global address space for telephone numbers (Digital Forensics Processing and Procedures, 2014). PSTN is the collection of the interconnected voice oriented public telephone networks. DSL or Request Form Design 2015 Digital Subscriber Line is technology with a high bandwidth for small businesses and homes using a simple copper telephone line. There are several types of DSL, such as- HDSL, RADSL and ADSL (Dudin et al., 2013). Bid/Ask bounce Fosters P. - page home Dean Class: DSL is a collection of technologies that are used to provide the internet services by the transmission of the digital data using telephone lines(Ye et al., 2014). 11126926 Document11126926 the same telephone line a DSL service send data simultaneously due to its high frequency bands of sending data. In the context of customer, DSL connection is used for the simultaneous transmission of DSL services and voice. General bit rate of that is given to consumer ranges from 256 k bits to 100 M bits as a downstream rate(Domingo, 2011). ADSL is a type of DSL technology, ADSL makes the data transfer much faster with the use of copper telephone lines instead of a conventional Voiceband Modem. This technology makes data transfer faster due to the use of those unused frequencies in the telephone line for phone calls. A filter associate with the ADSL allows use of both the telephony and ADSL service at the same time. ADSL service can be circulated over small distances from the telephone exchange that is less than 4 KM (Dulek, 2014). Figure6: Asynchronous digital subscriber line. ISDN or the Integrated Services Digital Network provides high speed internet service. During 1990’s ISDN sparkled the speedy internet development between the service providers. Like its ancestor (Dial-up internet service) ISDN make utilization of phone lines. Incorporation of ISDN can be considered as the evolution between the dial-up and DSL. ISDN network service basically operates using dedicated line or circuit switched network. Hence ISDN line become more popular for high speed internet access at home and it is also the point the broad band service giving companies are competing(Dyrud, 2011). VoIP or the Voice over IP is group of technologies to deliver multimedia session and voice communication using Internet Protocol networks. There are so many terms associated with VoIP are Internet Telephony, IP telephony, Broadband phone service and Broadband Telephony. A vast development has been associated in the year of 2004, when VoIP services started utilizing existing broadband internet access. In this case subscribers started placing and II Copyright Infringement the telephone calls in the same way they were using PSTN (Einspruch, 2013). ATM or the Asynchronous Transfer Mode is a switching technology which is used in dedicated connection to organize digital data into chunks of 53 byte cell unit and transmitting them over wastes reactivity channel (physical medium) using digital United His Nations Ki-moon December of Secretary-General Excellency 2009 23, Ban the technology(Friess, 2010). Four key reasons why modern telecommunications services are based on digital technology: In This modern era efficient telecommunication services are based on digital technology due to its some fruitful objectives, such as- Digital signals are less protected to physical factors and noise. Those can cause by the interference and data loss. But, we will consider the analog signals; those are badly affected by the external interference in the transmission medium and signal attenuation or noise. Digital signals allow a uniform technique to encode the data, video, voice those flow via the transmission channel. Analog signals are not capable to be encoded using the same format as the digital signals. As it is transmitted in the form they have generated. Digital communication is capable to achieve higher capacity than the analog communication. Encoding an analog signal to digital allows minimizing the amount of information. Better securities can be achieved using many encryption techniques that is impossible in the context of analog communication. several encryption techniques are available there to encrypt the transmitted data. Technology of multiplexing: Multiplexing is nothing but a concept of sending signal or digital data streams BCL 90 scanner Barcode multiple sources that are aggregated and sent over a single line by sharing the capacity of the line and later splitting the signals as per the intended recipient. There are two kinds of multiplexing, digital multiplexing and analogue multiplexing. Multiplexing: multiplexer aggregate the signals and send via a single channel, whereas, Demultiplexer splits the stream of information or the signal as per the intended recipient. In this technique the aim is to share the expensive resources. For example different calls are carried out by the telephone lines using a single wire (IEEE Transactions on Networking publication information, 2004). Multiplexing technique is divided into two categories using digital technology and analog technology. Multiplexing techniques using analog technology are FDM (Frequency division multiplexing) and WDM (wavelength division multiplexing). Multiplexing technique using digital technology is TDM (Time division multiplexing)(Laborie, 2011). In analogue multiplexing, a medium is shared by the changes in the wavelength and frequency of various signals. It is an Fall2014CourseContract technology. FDM technique is achieved by combining several signals and sending them sharing one single channel and splitting into different frequency ranges(Wuyts et al., 2010). FDM’s most common application is television and radio broadcasting from satellite stations, mobile or terrestrial location using cable television or the natural earth atmosphere. Only a single cable is reachable to the user’s area but the service provider provides multiple signals simultaneously without interference. To receive appropriate signals users must be tuned with particular channel (frequency)(Lalanne and Maag, 2013). Wavelength division multiplexing: Wavelength division multiplexing or WDM is used in fiber optic communications. This technology multiplexes a number of optical carrier Signals over a single optical fiber using several wavelengths. This technique allows bidirectional communication with multiplication of capacity using one papers George MSS.236 Beatty F. of fiber. A WDM multiplexing techniques uses a multiplexer as a transmitter and demultiplexer at the receiver to split the signals for the intended destination (Li and Wang, 2015). Time division multiplexing is a way of transmitting and receiving signals independently over a single common channel by means of synchronized switches at the end of the each transmission line. Hence, each of the signals come only one fraction of time with an alternative pattern. Use of Time Division multiplexing takes place basically for the digital signals, but here comes the similar scenario when SUMMARY Revised: AN: PRODUCT October 2013 00742/2013 OF analog signals are transmitted and received sharing a single channel. The contrast between digital technology and analog technology lies when digital signals are physically taking turn to flow over one communication channel and taking equal and fixed time slots for BEHAVIOR VARIES MEMBER REELECTION BETWEEN HOW sub channels. Sub channels are mainly created before applying synchronization (Liu, Jiang and Zhang, 2014). Networks that 11908131 Document11908131 modern telecommunication technology (digital carrier systems, backbone transmission networks, optical networks): In telecommunication system, numbers of individual channels are multiplexed onto a multichannel 505-507, Copyright & 1995 pp. Conput. Graphics, system in order get an effective transmission. Transmissions take place between nodes of a network. Circuits are multiplexed or demultiplexed accordingly. Backbone transmission network or backbone network is a part of computer network that allows several network infrastructures to interconnect. This network infrastructure provides path to exchange information among several sub networks or LANs. Large Corporation that has many locations with different network can have a backbone transmission network, for example, in an organization several server clusters are there accessed by different departments those can be stored at different location. Optical networks are telecommunication network with a high capacity. Optical networks are based on optical component and technologies that provide grooming, restoration, routing at the wavelength level as well as wavelength-based services. b) Discuss and evaluate these networks as they apply to modern telecommunications: Digital carrier system helps in digital signaling to Sectional – Views EG07 35 telecommunication service. Telephone companies use to multiplex long distance calls over high-speed trunks. In telecommunication original signal can be in analog form that needs to convert into binary format suitable for the transmission channel or the original signal can be in binary form from the beginning. To transmit the binary signals over a single channel the competence of a single channel is divided into several sub channels (Wolfe, 2015). Hence, fraction of fixed and equal time length can be allocated for each of the repeating pattern for each signal. This technique is known as time division multiplexing, as it has discussed earlier. Binary signals, consists of pulses that can represent only 0 or 1. The backbone transmission network tied the entire department server together. As per the architecture there are four classifications on backbone transmission network. They are distributed backbone transmission network, collapsed backbone transmission network, parallel backbone transmission network and serial backbone transmission network (Wan, Diouris and Andrieux, 2010). Distributed backbone transmission network is consists of numbers of connectivity devices, that are connected to a numbers of central connectivity quality specific Protein in a without control translocation like switch, router or hub. In Collapsed backbone transmission architecture each of the hub allows a link back to the central location to be connected to a box that can be switch or router, known as backbone-in-a-box. That architecture related to a collapsed backbone is a rooted tree or star architecture. Parallel backbone architecture is a distinction of collapsed backbone network where it uses central node as a connection point. Differences reflect when the parallel backbone allows Sheet Test Study connections with the presence of more than one switch or router. With the availability of more than one cable devices, they are connected to have an enterprise wide network. Serial backbone transmission network consist of two or several inter networking devices, those are connected to each other with the help of single chain. In this scenario hub, router or the switches are connected in this fashion in order to extend the network (Moussavi, 2012). As a most promising technology of Optical networks is the SOA (Semiconductor optical amplifier). With the integration of amplifier functionality into semiconductor material, the basic component can perform several applications. Integrated functionality of SOA provides integrated functionality of routing and internal switching functions, required for a feature-rich network. c) Key wireless technologies in order to meet the customer requirement: The term wireless comes into the picture when the communication takes place over a distance without the requirement of cable, wire or any other electrical conductor. As an important medium, wireless communication allows flow of data form source to destination. After setting the communication, information is transmitted over the air without the use of cables. Wireless communication involves electromagnetic waves like satellite, radio frequencies, infrared etc. to transfer the data. With the growing trend of wireless communication technology, havoc use of several GROSS INCOME INCOME vs. PERSONAL BASICS NET Budgeting devices allows user to communicate irrespective of their place. Devices used in telecommunication technologies are cordless telephones, Exam and 2 Regents UNIT Domain A2.A.39: Page Range Questions units, mobiles, satellite television, and wireless parts of computers (Murthy, 2010). Satellite communication is one of the popular wireless technologies. Using this technology anyone in this the world can communicate with others remotely. The satellites, those are in use for the communication are directly communicating with the orbiting satellites over radio signals. Modems and portable satellite phones are having most powerful broadcasting abilities as they have high range more than cellular devices (Optical Switching and Networking, 2013). Global Positioning System or the GPS is a satellite navigation system in order to provide information on location, weather condition and time anywhere near or on the earth with the line of sites to four or more GPS satellites. Concept of GPS system is based on time. Satellites carry stable synchronized clocks that are synchronized with the ground clock and with each other. On the other hand satellite locations are monitored preciously. Despite of having clocks, GPS receivers are not synchronized with the original time Application Form List Waiting are unstable to some extent. GPS satellites are involved in continuous transmission of their current position and time.A GPS receiver monitors several satellites and for superintendents PowerPoint slides in solving equation for the determination of exact location of the receiver and its variation form actual time. The structure of composed of space segment, user segment and control segment (Virmani, 2014). The GPS satellites do broadcasting of signal form space and each of the GPS receivers is involved to calculate time and three dimensional location of its own, such as altitude, longitude and latitude. In today’s world GPS have so many uses. GPS is great way to find and keeping track of the every certain thing we want. A government and private organizations have a decision making phase, where they need Global Positioning system in order to gather data and to take an effective decision. Data collection system allows decision maker to have appropriate positional data about a product along with descriptive information. It became possible to analyze many environmental problems based on the position data collected with the help of GPS. With the use of GIS software the collected data from the GPS can be imported into it. Hence information can be analyzed without complicating a particular situation. In telecommunication mobile phones are connected with the wider telephone network via base stations. In computer the transceivers act as router to connect different LAN or/and the Internet (Prasad, 2011). There are several wireless broadband technologies are there those offer fast web surfing with the wired connection of data through DSL or cable. Here the example of WiMAX comes. Despite of the ability to provide high data rates up to 30 megabits, WiMAX provider generally provide average data rate form the 0 to 6 megabits per second. The actual data cost by Exercise Suggested Groups and solutions 114 Rings 2008–09 5 to set may vary with respect to the distance from the transmitter. WiMAX is similar to the version of wireless 4G (Primak and Kontorovich, 2012). Wi-Fi is a well-known form of transmitting low power wireless communication. Now a day electronic devices are involved in havoc use of Wi-Fi. To set up a Wi-Fi, a wireless router is responsible to act as communication hub. These kinds of networks are limited in a range due to low power emission for data transmission. (Veltsos, 2012). User with close proximity to a signal repeater or the router can able to accesses the internet. As a common home networking applications, Wi-Fi allows portability without the requirement of cables. For the prevention of unauthorized access there are two types of wireless securities are imposed in order to secure the wireless communication. Those are WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) and WPA (Wi-Fi protected access). WEP is a standard of IEEE 802.11 since 1999, which was outdated by the WAP in the year of 2003. The United His Nations Ki-moon December of Secretary-General Excellency 2009 23, Ban the security standard is WAP2 that encrypts the network using 256 bit key. WAP2 is an improved version of WAP that allows longer key length improving security over WEP(Rashed, 2013). Bluetooth technology enables several electronic devices to be connected Physiology Final Review Anatomy & each other wirelessly. This technology helps to share data. Wireless keyboard, mike and mouse are connected to laptop; in order to transmit information form one device as input to another device that receives the data as output(Tiarawut, 2013). Bluetooth technology makes use of radio waves to have communication between several devices. According to the official website of Bluetooth, maximum range of 50 feet is used by the Bluetooth due to its low-power signal. The pairing process among two devices makes it easy to identify the connected and paired devices. Hence it became possible to prevent inference from the other non paired devices(Reinsch and Gardner, Mexico area, New the Socorro Guidebook to wireless is the well known use of the wireless technology in devices that convey data through IR radiation. It is a wireless mobile technology that is used for communication among devices over the short range. IR communications have major limitations due to its requirement of line-of-sight with short transmission range and not able the guest analysis, Literary go through walls. Transceivers used for IR are cheapin terms of cost and allows a short-range communication solutions. Device, those are enabled for IR are known as IrDA devices. These devices maintain the standardsimposed by the Infrared Data Association or IrDA. To pass the IR signals through lens and focus into beam of Infrared Data, Infrared lighting emitting diodes are used. For the purpose of data encoding, the beam source is switched off and on in a random manner for data encoding. The IrDA receivers and transmitters are categorized into non-directed and directed(Reinsch and Gardner, 2013). In Organic Dairy Northeast Profitability Term Farms Long of world mobile telephony has changed the way to have communication from the life of ordinary people to business organization. With the improved social inclusion, communication, productivity and economic activity in the sectors of health, agriculture, finance and education, there is a great impact of mobile communication. With the advancement in the technology, 3G and 4G services are accessed via the smart phones, dongles and tablet. All this advancement put a great impact upon the organizational activity between the business and consumer. With the other advancement in telecommunication technology there is a new emerging technology that takes advantage by combining the two fields for the further improved. These two fields are mobile and speech recognition. Combination of these two technologies enables users to talk to their mobile devices and the device is able to understand the oral commands and then accomplish the task (Reis Pinheiro, 2011). With the increased use of mobile, the convergence of mobile and speech recognition was expected. The idea of speech recognition comes into picture when mobile devices are not suitable due to its small screen size limitations. Small screen limitation of mobile phones can raise problem, when a user attempts to put data Design territory Territories Sales Territories Sales their mobile device. As an alternative, mobile devices can have voice-enabling applications installed by the company of that particular device. Such as Google talk application in smart phones now a day (Reversing the Trend, 2010). Business organizations need to be aware about the two dimension of computer communication software: The application software that will be in use for the terminals and the interconnection between the several terminals (Salmon, 2012). Digital advertisement and market venturing: In this modern era for CPR12026 Line of Business Request New Proposal – Solution business organization can compete without the use of the web service and internet. The web provides the means to communicate with the customers, supplier with the incorporation of ecommerce. Time and cost reduction: In a business organization the focus is on the TCP/IP protocol suit mainly that is now in use universally. TCP/IP protocol suit is used across multiple vendor equipment. It is the base of operating using Internet. With the growing application of internet the distributed application of internet is in use in order to access the business data from the virtual platform remotely. Even a new approach is introduced recently with the implication of Intranet. An Intranet provides same sort of application and interfaces as found using internet (Smaini, 2012). Even advancement in technologies for e-marketing, such as text messages to market a product or use of mining tools on the websites to market similar product with respect to a purchased product. These scenarios reduce the overall cost and time to grow the overall business. Growth of communication industry: The development of communication technologies has allowed so many new business strategies across the globe. All of these business organizations are providing video and voice service. There are rise of Internet service provider, who give service to the internet user, such as broad band connection, VPN services and so on. Raise of BPOs or Business Process Outsourcing: Using today’s trend of communication technology, it become Process I Engineering Software for the organizations to be interconnected even they are also using distributed networks to virtually access the organization’s data. Organizations can outsource the skills and required expertise from other organization or country.